Mortars

 

Publication Title:                   Mortars
Publication/revision date:    01 MAR 2000
Field Manual:                        FM 23-90
   Supersedes:                      FM 23-90/TO 11W2-5-13-21, 19 SEP 1990; and TC 23-18, 24 AUG 1967
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

CONTENTS
Table of Contents

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CHANGE 1, 9 DECEMBER 2002
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Section I General Doctrine
1-1. Effective Mortar Fire
1-2. Mortar Positions
Section II Indirect Fire Team
1-3. Applications
1-4. Team Mission
Section III Safety Procedures
1-5. Duties of the Safety Officer and Supervisory Personnel
1-6. Ammunition Care and Handling
1-7. Field Storage of Ammunition
CHAPTER 2 SIGHTING AND FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT
Section I Compass, M2
2-1. Characteristics
2-2. Description
2-3. Use
Section II Aiming Circles, M2 and M2A2
2-4. Characteristics
2-5. Description
2-6. Use
2-7. Accessory Equipment
2-8. Setup and Leveling of Aiming Circle
2-9. Declination Constant
2-10. Orienting of the Instrument on Grid North to Measure Grid Azimuth to Objects
2-11. Measurement of Horizontal Angle Between Two Points
2-12. Orienting of the 0-3200 Line on a Given Grid Azimuth
2-13. Orienting of the 0-3200 Line on a Given Magnetic Azimuth
2-14. Verifying the Lay of the Platoon
2-15. Orienting by Orienting Angle
2-16. Disassembly of Aiming Circle
2-17. Care and Maintenance
Section III Sightunits
2-18. Sightunit, M53-Series
2-19. Operation of M53 Sightunit
2-20. Care and Maintenance of M53 Sightunit
2-21. Sightunit, M64-Series
2-22. Sightunit, M67
Section IV Boresights
2-23. Boresight, M45-Series
2-24. Boresight, M115
2-25. Principles of Operation
2-26. Installation
2-27. Sight Calibration
2-28. Boresight Method of Calibration
2-29. Calibration for Deflection Using the M2 Aiming Circle
Section V Other Equipment
2-30. Instrument Light, M53E1
2-31. Aiming Posts, M14 and M1A2
2-32. Aiming Post Lights, M58 and M59
Section VI Laying the Section
2-33. Reciprocal Laying
2-34. Reciprocal Laying on a Grid Azimuth
2-35. Reciprocal Laying on a Magnetic Azimuth
2-36. Reciprocal Laying Using the Orienting Angle
2-37. Reciprocal Laying Using the Mortar Sights
2-38. Reciprocal Laying Using the M2 Compass
2-39. Placing Out Aiming Posts
2-40. Alternate Method of Placing Out Aiming Posts
2-41. Correction for Displacement of Sight
Section VII Loading and Firing
2-42. Firing the Mortar
2-43. Target Engagement
2-44. Execution of Fire Commands
2-45. Arm-and-Hand Signals
2-46. Subsequent Fire Commands
2-47. Repeating and Correcting of Fire Commands
2-48. Reporting of Errors in Firing
2-49. Night Firing
CHAPTER 3 60-mm MORTAR, M224
Section I Squad and Section Organization and Duties
3-1. Organization
3-2. Duties
Section II Components
3-3. Tabulated Data
3-4. Cannon Assembly, M225
3-5. Baseplate, M7
3-6. Baseplate, M8
3-7. Bipod Assembly, M170
Section III Operation
3-8. Premount Checks
3-9. Mounting of the Mortar
3-10. Safety Checks Before Firing
3-11. Small Deflection and Elevation Changes
3-12. Large Deflection and Elevation Changes
3-13. Referring of the Sight and Realignment of Aiming Posts
3-14. Malfunctions
3-15. Removal of a Misfire
3-16. Dismounting and Carrying of the Mortar
Section IV Ammunition
3-17. Classification
3-18. Color Codes
3-19. Preparation of Ammunition
3-20. Types of Fuzes
3-21. Standard B Ammunition
3-22. Care and Handling
CHAPTER 4 81-mm MORTAR, M252
Section I Squad and Section Organization and Duties
4-1. Organization
4-2. Duties
Section II Components
4-3. Tabulated Data
4-4. Cannon Assembly, M253
4-5. Mount, M177
4-6. Baseplate, M3A1
Section III Operation
4-7. Premount Checks
4-8. Mounting of the Mortar
4-9. Safety Checks Before Firing
4-10. Small Deflection and Elevation Changes
4-11. Large Deflection and Elevation Changes
4-12. Referring of the Sight and Realignment of Aiming Posts Using M64 Sight
4-13. Malfunctions
4-14. Removal of a Misfire
4-15. Dismounting of the Mortar
Section IV Ammunition
4-16. Classification
4-17. Function
4-18. High-Explosive Ammunition
4-19. Red/White Phosphorus Ammunition
4-20. Illuminating Ammunition
4-21. Types of Fuzes
4-22. Characteristics of Proximity Fuzes
4-23. Fuze Wrench and Fuze Setter
4-24. Preparation of Ammunition
4-25. Care and Handling
CHAPTER 5 81-mm MORTAR, M29A1
Section I Squad and Section Organization and Duties
5-1. Organization
5-2. Duties
Section II Components
5-3. Tabulated Data
5-4. Cannon Assembly, M29A1
5-5. Bipod Assembly, M23A1
5-6. Baseplate, M3
Section III Operation
5-7. Premount Checks
5-8. Mounting of the Mortar
5-9. Safety Checks Before Firing
5-10. Small Deflection and Elevation Changes
5-11. Large Deflection and Elevation Changes
5-12. Referring of the Sight and Realignment of Aiming Posts Using M53 Sight
5-13. Malfunctions
5-14. Removal of a Misfire
5-15. Dismounting of the Mortar
Section IV Ammunition
5-16. Function
5-17. High-Explosive Ammunition
5-18. White Phosphorus Ammunition
5-19. White Phosphorus Ammunition
5-20. Types of Fuzes
5-21. Characteristics of Proximity Fuzes
5-22. Fuze Wrench and Fuze Setter
5-23. Preparation of Ammunition
5-24. Care and Handling
CHAPTER 6 4.2-INCH MORTAR, M30
Section I Squad and Section Organization and Duties
6-1. Organization
6-2. Duties
6-3. Section Drill and Section Leader Duties
Section II Components
6-4. Tabulated Data
6-5. Mortar Cannon, M30
6-6. Mortar Mount, M24A1
Section III Operation of Ground-Mounted Mortar
6-7. Mounting of the Mortar
6-8. Safety Checks Before Firing
6-9. Small Deflection Change
6-10. Large Deflection and Elevation Changes
6-11. Loading and Firing of M329A2 Round
6-12. Malfunctions
6-13. Removal of a Misfire
6-14. Dismounting of the Mortar
Section IV Mortar Carriers, M106, M106A1, and M106A2
6-15. Description
6-16. Tabulated Data
Section V Operation of Carrier-Mounted Mortar
6-17. Mortar and Vehicular Mount
6-18. Maintenance
6-19. Placement of Mortar Into Firing Position on Carrier
6-20. Laying for Deflection and Elevation
6-21. Removal of a Misfire (Carrier-Mounted)
6-22. Mounting of Mortar on Carrier From Ground-Mounted Position
6-23. Dismounting of Mortar From Carrier
6-24. Preparation for a March Order From Ground-Mounted Position
6-25. Safety Checks
6-26. Measurement of Minimum and Maximum Elevations
6-27. Squad Formations
6-28. Dismounted Mortar Squad
6-29. Reciprocally Laying the Mortar Carrier Section
Section VI Ammunition
6-30. Classification
6-31. Types of Fuzes
6-32. Preparation of Ammunition
6-33. Care and Handling
CHAPTER 7 120-mm MORTAR, M120
Section I Squad and Section Organization and Duties
7-1. Organization
7-2. Duties
Section II Components
7-3. Tabulated Data for the 120-mm Mortar, M120
7-4. Barrel Assembly, M298
7-5. Bipod Assembly, M191 (Carrier-/Ground-Mounted)
7-6. Bipod Assembly, M190 (Ground-Mounted)
7-7. Baseplate, M9
Section III Operation of a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-8. Placing a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar Into Action
7-9. Performing Safety Checks on a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-10. Performing Small Deflection and Elevation Changes on a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-11. Performing Large Deflection and Elevation Changes on a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-12. Clearing Malfunctions on a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-13. Performing Misfire Procedures on a Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar During Combat
7-14. Loading and Firing the Ground-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-15. Taking the 120-mm Mortar Out of Action
Section IV Mortar Carrier, M1064A3
7-16. Description
7-17. Tabulated Data for the M1064A3 Carrier
Section V Operation of a Carrier-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-18. Mortar and Vehicular Mount
7-19. Maintenance
7-20. Placing Carrier-Mounted 120-mm Mortar Into Action
7-21. Lay for Deflection and Elevation on a Carrier-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-22. Performing Misfire Procedures on a Carrier-Mounted 120-mm Mortar During Combat
7-23. Mounting of the Mortar From a Carrier to a Ground-Mounted Position
7-24. Taking the Mortar Out of Action (Ground-Mounted to M1064A3 Carrier-Mounted)
7-25. Performing Safety Checks on a Carrier-Mounted 120-mm Mortar
7-26. Reciprocally Laying the Mortar Carrier Section
Section VI Ammunition
7-27. Classification
7-28. Authorized Cartridges
7-29. Preparation for Firing
7-30. Loading and Firing
7-31. Unfired Cartridges
7-32. Care and Handling of Cartridges
7-33. Fuzes
7-34. Setting Fuzes
7-35. Resetting Fuzes
CHAPTER 8 FIRE WITHOUT A FIRE DIRECTION CENTER
Section I Fire Procedures
8-1. Advantages and Disadvantages
8-2. Firing Data
8-3. Observer Corrections
8-4. Initial Fire Commands
8-5. Fire Commands
8-6. Fire Control
8-7. Movement to Alternate and Supplementary Positions
8-8. Squad Conduct of Fire
8-9. Reference Line
8-10. Fire Adjustment
8-11. Squad Use of Illumination and Smoke
8-12. Attack of Wide Targets
8-13. Attack of Deep Targets
Section II Direct-Lay Method
8-14. Step 1: Initial Firing Data
8-15. Step 2: Referring the Sight
8-16. Step 3: Bracketing the Target
8-17. Step 4: Fire for Effect
Section III Direct-Alignment Method
8-18. Mortar Dismounted
8-19. Mortar Mounted
8-20. Natural Object Method
Section IV Adjustment of Range
8-21. Range Spottings
8-22. Miscellaneous Spottings
8-23. Bracketing Method
8-24. Creeping Method of Adjustment
8-25. Normal Fire Commands
8-26. Modified Fire Commands
8-27. Fire Control
8-28. Establishment of a Reference Line and Shifting From That Line
8-29. Ladder Method of Adjustment
CHAPTER 9 GUNNER'S EXAMINATION
Section I Preparatory Instruction
9-1. Methods of Instruction
9-2. Prior Training
9-3. Preparatory Exercises
9-4. Examining Board
9-5. Location and Date
9-6. Eligible Personnel
9-7. Qualification Scores
9-8. General Rules
Section II Gunner's Examination With Ground-Mounted Mortar
9-9. Subjects and Credits
9-10. Equipment
9-11. Organization
9-12. Procedure
9-13. Mounting of the Mortar
9-14. Small Deflection Change
9-15. Referring of the Sight and Realignment of Aiming Posts
9-16. Large Deflection and Elevation Changes
9-17. Reciprocal Laying
Section III Gunner's Examination With the Track-Mounted Mortar
9-18. Subjects and Credits
9-19. Equipment
9-20. Organization
9-21. Procedure
9-22. Placement of Mortar Into a Firing Position From Traveling Position
9-23. Small Deflection Change
9-24. Referring of the Sight and Realignment of Aiming Posts
9-25. Large Deflection and Elevation Changes
9-26. Reciprocal Laying
9-27. Support Squad
APPENDIX A TRAINING DEVICES
APPENDIX B MORTAR TRAINING STRATEGY
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
AUTHENTICATION

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