Sniper Training

Publication Title:                   Sniper Training
Publication/revision date:    17 AUG 1994
Field Manual:                        FM 23-10
   Supersedes:                      TC 23-14, 14 JUN 1989
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

CONTENTS
Table of Contents
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PREFACE
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
1-1. Mission
1-2. Organization
1-3. Personnel Selection Criteria
1-4. Sniper and Observer Responsibilities
1-5. Team Firing Techniques
CHAPTER 2 - EQUIPMENT
Section I - M24 Sniper Weapon System
2-1. Operations and Functions
2-2. Inspection
2-3. Care and Maintenance
2-4. Disassembly
2-5. Loading and Unloading
2-6. Storage
Section II - Ammunition
2-7. Types and Characteristic
2-8. Round-Count Book
2-9. M24 Malfunctions and Corrections
Section III - Sniper Sighting Devices
2-10. M3A Scope
2-11. Iron Sights
Section IV - Other Equipment
2-12. M16A1/A2 Rifle with M203 Grenade Launcher
2-13. Image Intensification and Infrared Devices
2-14. M49 Observation Telescope
2-15. M19 Binoculars
2-16. M22 Binoculars
2-17. Other Sniper Equipment
Section V - Communications Equipment
2-18. AN/PRC-77 Radio
2-19. AN/PRC-104A Radio Transceiver
2-20. AN/PRC-119 Radio
CHAPTER 3 - MARKSMANSHIP
Section I - Fundamentals
3-1. Steady Position Elements
3-2. Aiming
3-3. Breath Control
3-4. Trigger Control
3-5. Follow-Through
3-6. Calling the Shot
3-7. Integrated Act of Firing
Section II - Ballistics
3-8. Types of Ballistics
3-9. Terminology
3-10. Effects on Trajectory
3-11. Angle Firing
Section III - Effects of Weather
3-12. Wind Classification
3-13. Wind Velocity
3-14. Conversion of Wind Velocity to Minutes of Angle
3-15. Effects of Light
3-16. Effects of Temperature
3-17. Effects of Humidity
Section IV - Sniper Data Book
3-18. Entries
3-19. Analysis
Section V - Holdoff
3-20. Elevation
3-21. Windage
Section VI - Engagement of Moving Targets
3-22. Techniques
3-23. Common Errors
3-24. Calculation of Leads
Section VII - Nuclear, Biological, Chemical
3-25. Protective Mask
3-26. Mission-Oriented Protection Posture
CHAPTER 4 - FIELD TECHNIQUES
Section I - Camouflage
4-1. Target Indicators
4-2. Basic Methods
4-3. Types of Camouflage
4-4. Ghillie Suit
4-5. Field-Expedient Camouflage
4-6. Cover and Concealment
Section II - Movement
4-7. Rules of Movement
4-8. Individual Movement Techniques
4-9. Sniper Team Movement and Navigation
Section III - Selection, Occupation, and Construction of Sniper Positions
4-10. Selection
4-11. Occupation
4-12. Construction
4-13. Positions in Urban Terrain
Section IV - Observation
4-14. Hasty and Detailed Searches
4-15. Elements of Observation
4-16. Twilight Techniques
4-17. Night Techniques
4-18. Illumination Aids
Section V - Target Detection and Selection
4-19. Target Indexing
4-20. Target Selection
4-21. Key Target
Section VI - Range Estimation
4-22. Factors Affecting Range Estimation
4-23. Range Estimation Methods
4-24. Laser Range Finder
4-25. Estimation Guidelines
Section VII - Information Records
4-26. Range Card
4-27. Military Sketch
4-28. Sniper Data Book
CHAPTER 5 - MISSION PREPARATION
Section I - Planning and Coordination
5-1. Mission Alert
5-2. Warning Order
5-3. Tentative Plan
5-4. Coordination Checklists
5-5. Completion of Plan
5-6. Operation Order
5-7. Briefback
5-8. Equipment Check
5-9. Final Inspection
5-10. Rehearsals
5-11. Final Preparations
5-12. Preparation of Debriefing
5-13. Countersniper Operation
5-14. Reaction to Enemy Sniper Fire
Section II - Mission Packing Lists
5-15. Arms and Ammunition
5-16. Special Equipment
5-17. Uniforms and Equipment
5-18. Optional Equipment
5-19. Special Tools and Equipment (MOUT)
5-20. Additional Equipment Transport
CHAPTER 6 - OPERATIONS
Section I - Insertion
6-1. Planning Insertion
6-2. Air Insertion
6-3. Amphibious Insertion
6-4. Land Insertion
6-5. Vehicle Insertion
Section II - Execution
6-6. Movement to Target Area
6-7. Occupation of Position
6-8. Site Selection
6-9. Reports
6-10. Movement to Extraction Site
Section III - Extraction and Recovery
6-11. Planning
6-12. Evasion and Escape Plan
6-13. Air or Water Extraction
6-14. Land Exfiltration
6-15. Vehicle Extraction
6-16. Recovery
CHAPTER 7 - COMMUNICATIONS
Section I - Field-Expedient Antennas
7-1. Repair Technique
7-2. Construction and Adjustment
7-3. Field-Expedient Omnidirectional Antenna
7-4. Field-Expedient Directional Antenna
7-5. Antenna Length
7-6. Antenna Orientation
7-7. Improvement of Marginal Communications
Section II - Radio Operations Under Unusual Conditions
7-8. Arctic Areas
7-9. Jungle Areas
7-10. Desert Areas
7-11. Mountainous Areas
7-12. Urbanized Terrain
7-13. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment
Section III - Communications Format
7-14. Spot Report
7-15. Situation Report
7-16. Reconnaissance Report
7-17. Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference Report
7-18. Shelling Reports
7-19. Enemy Prisoner of War/Captured Materiel Report
7-20. NBC 1 Report
7-21. Medical Evacuation Request
CHAPTER 8 - TRACKING/COUNTERTRACKING
Section I - Tracking
8-1. Displacement
8-2. Stains
8-3. Weather
8-4. Litter
8-5. Camouflage
8-6. Immediate-Use Intelligence
8-7. Dog/Handler Tracking Teams
Section II - Countertracking
8-8. Evasion
8-9. Camouflage
8-10. Deception Techniques
CHAPTER 9 - SNIPER SUSTAINMENT TRAINING
9-1. Basic Skills Sustainment
9-2. Additional Skills Sustainment
9-3. Training Notes
9-4. Example 5-day Sniper Sustainment Training Program
9-5. Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise
9-6. Record Fire Tables
9-7. M24 Sniper MILES Training
APPENDIX A - SNIPER WEAPONS OF THE WORLD
APPENDIX B - M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
BLANK FORMS
AUTHORIZATION LETTER
 

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