Publication Title:                   Mine/Countermine Operations
Publication/revision date:    01 ARP 2005
Field Manual:                        FM 20-32
   Supersedes:                      FM 20-32, 30 SEP 1992
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

CONTENTS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .............................................................................................................x
Figures...........................................................................................................................................x

Tables........................................................................................................................................... xv
PREFACE......................................................................................................................................xvii
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................1-1
MECHANICS OF MINES ..........................................................................................................1-1
Characteristics and Functioning .........................................................................................1-1
Components and Initiating Actions.....................................................................................1-2
ANTITANK MINES....................................................................................................................1-4
Types of Kills ........................................................................................................................1-4
Types of Sensing ...................................................................................................................1-5
Types of Warheads ...............................................................................................................1-5
ANTIPERSONNEL MINES.......................................................................................................1-5
Types of Kills ........................................................................................................................1-5
Types of Sensing ...................................................................................................................1-6
Types of Effects.....................................................................................................................1-6
ANTIHANDLING DEVICES .....................................................................................................1-6
Part One. Mine Operations
CHAPTER 2. MINE-WARFARE PRINCIPLES........................................................................2-1
MINE-WARFARE CONCEPTS..................................................................................................2-1
TYPES OF MINEFIELDS..........................................................................................................2-1
Protective Minefields............................................................................................................2-2
Tactical Minefields ...............................................................................................................2-3
Nuisance Minefields .............................................................................................................2-4
Phony Minefields ..................................................................................................................2-4
PROTECTIVE VERSUS TACTICAL MINEFIELDS................................................................2-5
TACTICAL MINEFIELDS .........................................................................................................2-5
Minefield Variables ..............................................................................................................2-7
Design.................................................................................................................................2-10
TACTICAL-OBSTACLE INTEGRATION PRINCIPLES....................................................... 2-14
Obstacle Emplacement Authority ..................................................................................... 2-14
Obstacle Control................................................................................................................. 2-14
Obstacle Control Measures................................................................................................ 2-15
Fratricide Prevention......................................................................................................... 2-19
Maneuver-Plan Support .................................................................................................... 2-19
SITING AND EMPLACING TACTICAL MINEFIELDS....................................................... 2-32
Coordinating with the Maneuver Commander ................................................................ 2-32
Siting the Minefield ........................................................................................................... 2-37
Emplacing Minefields ........................................................................................................ 2-39
Determining Resource Requirements ............................................................................... 2-39
MINEFIELD SUPPLY OPERATIONS ................................................................................... 2-39
Resupply Nodes.................................................................................................................. 2-41
Resupply Rules................................................................................................................... 2-43
Supply Location.................................................................................................................. 2-44
Resupply Methods.............................................................................................................. 2-44
MINEFIELD MARKING ......................................................................................................... 2-49
Criteria ............................................................................................................................... 2-49
Perimeter ............................................................................................................................ 2-50
Techniques......................................................................................................................... 2-50
MINEFIELD TURNOVER....................................................................................................... 2-52
MINEFIELD INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE............................................................. 2-55
CHAPTER 3. SCATTERABLE MINES AND MINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS........................ 3-1
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.............................................................................................. 3-1
Antipersonnel Mines............................................................................................................ 3-1
Antitank Mines .................................................................................................................... 3-3
CAPABILITIES .......................................................................................................................... 3-5
Faster Response ................................................................................................................... 3-5
Remote Placement................................................................................................................ 3-5
Increased Tactical Flexibility .............................................................................................. 3-5
Efficiency .............................................................................................................................. 3-5
Increased Lethality .............................................................................................................. 3-5
LIMITATIONS........................................................................................................................... 3-5
Extensive Coordination ....................................................................................................... 3-5
Proliferation of Targets........................................................................................................ 3-6
Visibility ............................................................................................................................... 3-6
Accuracy............................................................................................................................... 3-6
Orientation ........................................................................................................................... 3-6
LIFE CYCLE.............................................................................................................................. 3-6
LETHALITY AND DENSITY .................................................................................................... 3-7
Lethality and Tactical-Obstacle Effect ............................................................................... 3-7
Density................................................................................................................................. 3-8
COMMAND AND CONTROL.................................................................................................... 3-9
AUTHORITY .............................................................................................................................. 3-9
COORDINATION.................................................................................................................... 3-10
EMPLOYMENT AND EMPLACEMENT ............................................................................... 3-10
Area-Denial Artillery Munitions and Remote Antiarmor Mines .................................... 3-11
Gator .................................................................................................................................. 3-14
Volcano............................................................................................................................... 3-17
Modular Pack Mine System............................................................................................... 3-27
MARKING................................................................................................................................................. 3-26
Safety Zones....................................................................................................................................... 3-27
Fragment Hazard Zones..................................................................................................................... 3-27
Fencing............................................................................................................................................... 3-28
Chapter 4. Special-Purpose Munitions...................................................................................................... 4-1
M18A1 CLAYMORE................................................................................................................................... 4-2
SELECTABLE LIGHTWEIGHT ATTACK MUNITION........................................................................... 4-3
Operating Modes ................................................................................................................................. 4-3
Antitamper Feature ............................................................................................................................. 4-6
M93 HORNET............................................................................................................................................. 4-6
Employment Considerations................................................................................................................ 4-7
Employment Roles............................................................................................................................... 4-7
Tactical Emplacement......................................................................................................................... 4-8
Recording and Marking...................................................................................................................... 4-15
Chapter 5. Conventional Mines................................................................................................................... 5-1
ANTITANK MINES.................................................................................................................................... 5-1
M15....................................................................................................................................................... 5-1
M21....................................................................................................................................................... 5-2
ANTIPERSONNEL MINES........................................................................................................................ 5-3
M14....................................................................................................................................................... 5-3
M16....................................................................................................................................................... 5-4
EMPLACING MINES ................................................................................................................................ 5-4
Mines With Prongs ............................................................................................................................... 5-4
Mines With Pressure Plates................................................................................................................. 5-4
Mines With Tilt Rods ........................................................................................................................... 5-6
Bearing Boards .................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Concealment ........................................................................................................................................ 5-6
Maneuver Assistance ........................................................................................................................... 5-8
Chapter 6. Row Mining ................................................................................................................................ 6-1
USE ............................................................................................................................................................. 6-1
RULES ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-1
LOGISTICS................................................................................................................................................. 6-3
Calculations ......................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Task Organization .............................................................................................................................. 6-14
Site Layout......................................................................................................................................... 6-16
Mine-Laying Vehicles........................................................................................................................ 6-18
Laying a Row Minefield ..................................................................................................................... 6-18
Immediate-Action Drill ...................................................................................................................... 6-24
Squad Drill......................................................................................................................................... 6-24
Marking, Recording, and Reporting Row Minefields ....................................................................... 6-25
STANDARDIZED TACTICAL ROW MINEFIELDS............................................................................... 6-25
Disrupt and Fix ................................................................................................................................. 6-28
Turn.................................................................................................................................................... 6-29
Block................................................................................................................................................... 6-31
HASTY PROTECTIVE ROW MINEFIELDS........................................................................................... 6-33
Rules................................................................................................................................................... 6-34
Site Layout......................................................................................................................................... 6-34
Chapter 7. Standard-Pattern Minefields .................................................................................................. 7-1
COMPONENTS.......................................................................................................................................... 7-1
Mine Strips .......................................................................................................................................... 7-1
Mine Clusters ...................................................................................................................................... 7-1
Rules for Positioning Clusters Within a Strip .................................................................................... 7-2
Standard-Pattern Minefield Rules ...................................................................................................... 7-4
LOGISTICAL CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................ 7-9
Cluster Calculation .............................................................................................................................. 7-9
Platoon Organization ......................................................................................................................... 7-10
Mine-Emplacement Procedures......................................................................................................... 7-11
Mine Emplacement............................................................................................................................ 7-13
NUISANCE MINEFIELDS...................................................................................................................... 7-17
Siting .................................................................................................................................................. 7-17
Location.............................................................................................................................................. 7-17
Laying ................................................................................................................................................ 7-18
Inspection and Maintenance.............................................................................................................. 7-18
Handover............................................................................................................................................ 7-19
Chapter 8. Reporting and Recording ........................................................................................................ 8-1
MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD REPORTS............................................................................................ 8-1
Report of Intention ............................................................................................................................... 8-1
Report of Initiation ............................................................................................................................... 8-1
Report of Completion........................................................................................................................... 8-2
Report of Transfer ............................................................................................................................... 8-2
Report of Change ................................................................................................................................. 8-3
Progress Reports.................................................................................................................................. 8-3
MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD RECORDS........................................................................................... 8-3
Minefield Record.................................................................................................................................. 8-4
Hasty Protective Row Minefield Record............................................................................................ 8-17
Nuisance Minefield............................................................................................................................ 8-20
SCATTERABLE MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD REPORTING AND RECORDING....................... 8-20
MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD OVERLAY SYMBOLS...................................................................... 8-25
Part Two. Counteroperations
Chapter 9. Countermine Operations ......................................................................................................... 9-1
DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................................ 9-1
Obstacle................................................................................................................................................ 9-1
Reduction ............................................................................................................................................. 9-1
Breaching ............................................................................................................................................. 9-1
Area Clearance .................................................................................................................................... 9-1
Route Clearance................................................................................................................................... 9-1
Mine Neutralization ............................................................................................................................. 9-1
Proofing ................................................................................................................................................ 9-2
Demining.............................................................................................................................................. 9-2
BREACHING OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 9-2
Intelligence .......................................................................................................................................... 9-2
Fundamentals...................................................................................................................................... 9-4
Organization ........................................................................................................................................ 9-4
Mass ..................................................................................................................................................... 9-5
Synchronization................................................................................................................................... 9-5
CLEARING OPERATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 9-6
Upgrade of Breach Lanes ...................................................................................................................... 9-6
Area Clearance ..................................................................................................................................... 9-7
Demining .............................................................................................................................................. 9-7
CHAPTER 10. MINEFIELD REDUCTION ............................................................................................... 10-1
DETECTING............................................................................................................................................. 10-1
Visual.................................................................................................................................................. 10-1
Physical............................................................................................................................................... 10-2
Electronic.......................................................................................................................................... 10-3b
Mechanical ......................................................................................................................................... 10-6
REPORTING............................................................................................................................................. 10-7
REDUCING............................................................................................................................................... 10-7
Explosive ............................................................................................................................................ 10-7
Mechanical ....................................................................................................................................... 10-14
Electronic.......................................................................................................................................... 10-22
Manual.............................................................................................................................................. 10-22
PROOFING ............................................................................................................................................. 10-24
MARKING.............................................................................................................................................. 10-24
Lane-Marking Terms......................................................................................................................... 10-25
Levels of Lane Marking and Patterns................................................................................................ 10-27
Commander's Guidance for Lane Marking ....................................................................................... 10-33
Lane-Marking Devices ...................................................................................................................... 10-34
Marking Requirements of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization .................................................. 10-36
CHAPTER 11. ROUTE AND AREA CLEARANCE ................................................................................. 11-1
ROUTE CLEARANCE............................................................................................................................. 11-1
Planning.............................................................................................................................................. 11-1
Planning Considerations..................................................................................................................... 11-3
Task Organization ............................................................................................................................... 11-7
Methods and Types........................................................................................................................... 11-11
AREA CLEARANCE .............................................................................................................................. 11-15
Planning............................................................................................................................................ 11-16
Planning Considerations................................................................................................................... 11-17
Task Organization ............................................................................................................................. 11-18
Methods and Types........................................................................................................................... 11-18
IMPROVISED MINE THREAT.............................................................................................................. 11-19
MINE LOCATIONS ............................................................................................................................... 11-20
DISPOSITION OF MINES...................................................................................................................... 11-20
Mine-Removal Techniques ............................................................................................................... 11-21
Hand Neutralization.......................................................................................................................... 11-21
SAFETY .................................................................................................................................................. 11-22
REPORTS................................................................................................................................................ 11-22
Situation Report................................................................................................................................ 11-23
Progress Report ................................................................................................................................ 11-23
Mine Incident Report......................................................................................................................... 11-26
CHAPTER 12. MINING OPERATIONS IN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS........................................... 12-1
STREAMBED AND RIVER MINING...................................................................................................... 12-1
Employment........................................................................................................................................ 12-1
Emplacement ...................................................................................................................................... 12-2
Recovery............................................................................................................................................. 12-3
Recording............................................................................................................................................ 12-3
Safety .................................................................................................................................................. 12-3
URBAN-TERRAIN MINING.................................................................................................................... 12-6
Antipersonnel Mines........................................................................................................................... 12-7
Conventional Antitank Mines............................................................................................................ 12-12
Scatterable Mines.............................................................................................................................. 12-13
Deception Measures.......................................................................................................................... 12-15
SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS.................................................................................................................. 12-16
Cold Regions .................................................................................................................................... 12-16
Jungles .............................................................................................................................................. 12-17
Deserts .............................................................................................................................................. 12-17
CHAPTER 13. BOOBY TRAPS AND EXPEDIENT DEVICES............................................................... 13-1
Section I. Setting Booby Traps........................................................................................................................ 13-1
TACTICS................................................................................................................................................... 13-2
SITING ...................................................................................................................................................... 13-4
TYPES OF TRAPS.................................................................................................................................... 13-4
COMPONENTS AND PRINCIPLES ........................................................................................................ 13-5
ACTUATION METHODS........................................................................................................................ 13-5
METHODS OF CONNECTION................................................................................................................ 13-5
Remote................................................................................................................................................ 13-5
Direct .................................................................................................................................................. 13-8
PLANNING, SETTING, AND RECORDING .......................................................................................... 13-8
Timeliness........................................................................................................................................... 13-8
Orders and Briefing ............................................................................................................................. 13-8
Rehearsal............................................................................................................................................. 13-9
Organization and Procedure ................................................................................................................ 13-9
Reporting and Recording................................................................................................................... 13-10
SITES....................................................................................................................................................... 13-14
SAFETY .................................................................................................................................................. 13-14
Section II. Clearing Booby Traps ................................................................................................................. 13-14
INDICATIONS........................................................................................................................................ 13-15
DETECTION........................................................................................................................................... 13-15
CLEARING METHODS......................................................................................................................... 13-15
COMBAT CLEARANCE ........................................................................................................................ 13-16
CLEARANCE IN SECURE AREAS....................................................................................................... 13-17
Policy and Planning ........................................................................................................................... 13-17
Control Point..................................................................................................................................... 13-18
Control and Size of Parties ................................................................................................................ 13-18
Marking............................................................................................................................................. 13-18
Clearing of Open Areas ..................................................................................................................... 13-18
Clearing of Buildings........................................................................................................................ 13-19
Exterior Reconnaissance and Entry ................................................................................................... 13-19
Search Techniques ............................................................................................................................. 13-19
Clearing Installations and Facilities............................................................................................... 13-21
Clearing Obstacles........................................................................................................................... 13-21
Clearing Secure Areas...................................................................................................................... 13-21
CLEARANCE METHODS....................................................................................................................... 13-22
IMPROVISED TRAPS............................................................................................................................ 13-23
NONEXPLOSIVE TRAPS....................................................................................................................... 13-23
Punji ................................................................................................................................................. 13-23
Closing Trap..................................................................................................................................... 13-23
Spike Board...................................................................................................................................... 13-28
Venus Flytrap .................................................................................................................................. 13-28
Section III. Expedient Devices................................................................................................................. 13-29
AUTHORIZATION ................................................................................................................................. 13-29
EMPLOYMENT AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ................................................................... 13-29
High-Explosive, Artillery-Shell Antitank Device ........................................................................... 13-30
Platter Charge ................................................................................................................................. 13-31
Improvised Claymore ....................................................................................................................... 13-31
Grapeshot Antipersonnel Device ..................................................................................................... 13-32
Barbwire Antipersonnel Device....................................................................................................... 13-32
Appendix A. Installation and Removal of US Mines
and Firing Devices..................................................................................................................................A-1
Section I. Antipersonnel Mines....................................................................................................................A-2
M14..............................................................................................................................................................A-2
Characteristics.....................................................................................................................................A-2
Installation...........................................................................................................................................A-3
Removal................................................................................................................................................A-5
M16..............................................................................................................................................................A-6
Characteristics.....................................................................................................................................A-6
Installation...........................................................................................................................................A-7
Removal..............................................................................................................................................A-10
Section II. Antitank Mines ..........................................................................................................................A-11
M15............................................................................................................................................................A-11
Characteristics...................................................................................................................................A-12
Installation Using the M624 Fuse.....................................................................................................A-13
Removal Using the M624 Fuse..........................................................................................................A-17
Installation Using the M603 Fuse.....................................................................................................A-17
Removal Using the M603 Fuse..........................................................................................................A-20
M21............................................................................................................................................................A-24
Characteristics...................................................................................................................................A-25
Installation.........................................................................................................................................A-26
Removal..............................................................................................................................................A-29
Section III. Firing Devices and Activators..............................................................................................A-29
M5 PRESSURE-RELEASE FIRING DEVICE (MOUSETRAP) .............................................................A-30
Characteristics...................................................................................................................................A-30
Installation.........................................................................................................................................A-31
Removal..............................................................................................................................................A-31
M142 MULTIPURPOSE FIRING DEVICE .............................................................................................A-32
Characteristics...................................................................................................................................A-33
Arming and Disarming......................................................................................................................A-33
M1 AND M2 ACTIVATORS.....................................................................................................................A-33
Appendix B. Controls and Components of
Special-Purpose Munitions................................................................................................................... B-1
SELECTABLE LIGHTWEIGHT ATTACK MUNITION...........................................................................B-1
M93 HORNET.............................................................................................................................................B-1
Appendix C. Threat Mine/Countermine Operations ............................................................................. C-1
MINE OPERATIONS .................................................................................................................................C-1
CHEMICAL MINES ...................................................................................................................................C-6
COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS ...............................................................................................................C-7
Organization ........................................................................................................................................C-7
Equipment..........................................................................................................................................C-11
Appendix D. Air Volcano............................................................................................................................. D-1
COMPONENTS ......................................................................................................................................... D-1
M87-Series Mine Canister................................................................................................................... D-1
M139 Dispenser .................................................................................................................................. D-2
LIMITATIONS........................................................................................................................................... D-2
EMPLOYMENT......................................................................................................................................... D-2
Deep Operations ................................................................................................................................. D-3
Close Operations................................................................................................................................. D-4
Rear Operations.................................................................................................................................. D-5
Minefield Effects ................................................................................................................................. D-6
Planning .............................................................................................................................................. D-8
EMPLACEMENT..................................................................................................................................... D-18
Outside Friendly Territory................................................................................................................ D-20
Within Friendly Territory ................................................................................................................. D-20
REPORTING............................................................................................................................................ D-22
Scatterable Minefield Warning......................................................................................................... D-22
Scatterable Minefield Report and Record ........................................................................................ D-22
Appendix E. Safety and Training............................................................................................................... E-1
STORAGE ...................................................................................................................................................E-1
LIVE-MINE TRAINING.............................................................................................................................E-3
LIVE-MINE DEMONSTRATIONS.............................................................................................................E-5
M16 Antipersonnel Mine......................................................................................................................E-5
M18A1 Antipersonnel Munition ..........................................................................................................E-6
M15 and M21 Antitank Mines .............................................................................................................E-7
RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LIVE-MINE DEMONSTRATIONS...............................................................E-8
RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LIVE-MINE TRAINING ..............................................................................E-10
Appendix F. Mine Awareness ......................................................................................................................F-1
SOLDIER.....................................................................................................................................................F-1
Visual Indicators..................................................................................................................................F-1
Self-Extraction .....................................................................................................................................F-2
AN/PSS-12 Metallic Mine Detector .....................................................................................................F-3
Evacuation Drills ...............................................................................................................................F-13
LEADER.................................................................................................................................. F-17
Risk Management.............................................................................................................. F-17
Recording and Mine-Data Tracking ................................................................................. F-20
Mine-Incident Report ........................................................................................................ F-21
TRAINING ............................................................................................................................... F-21
Individual Training ........................................................................................................... F-21
Leader Training................................................................................................................. F-22
Unit Training..................................................................................................................... F-23
APPENDIX G. COUNTERMINE DATA....................................................................................G-1
BREACHING ASSETS VERSUS THREAT OBSTACLES......................................................G-1
FOREIGN MINE DATA ............................................................................................................G-1
FOREIGN MINEFIELD EMPLACEMENT DATA..................................................................G-1
FOREIGN MINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS ................................................................................G-1
APPENDIX H. METRIC CONVERSION CHART .................................................................. H-1
GLOSSARY ....................................................................................................................... Glossary-1
REFERENCES..............................................................................................................References-1
INDEX .....................................................................................................................................Index-1

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