Publication Title:                   Rifle Marksmanship M16A1, M16A2/3, M16A4 & M4 Carbine
Publication/revision date:    13 SEP 2006
Field Manual:                        FM 3-22.9
   Supersedes:                      FM 3-22.9 (FM 23-9), 28 APR 2005
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

Contents:
PREFACE..........................................................................................................................v
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND TRAINING STRATEGY
Section I. Training Overview................................................................................1-1
1-1. Objectives .................................................................................1-1
1-2. Training Strategy ......................................................................1-1
1-3. Training Phases.........................................................................1-3
Section II. Marksmanship Training Strategy.......................................................... 1-5
1-4. Mission-Essential Tasks ...........................................................1-5
1-5. Training Assessment.................................................................1-5
1-6. Basic Program Implementation ................................................ 1-6
1-7. Training the Trainer ..................................................................1-6
1-8. Duties of the Instructor-Trainer ................................................ 1-7
1-9. Trainer Certification Program................................................... 1-7
1-10. Qualification Training...............................................................1-9
1-11. Unit Live-Fire Exercises......................................................... 1-10
1-12. Commander’s Evaluation Guide............................................. 1-11
CHAPTER 2. CHARACTERISTICS, AMMUNITION, AND ACCESSORIES
2-1. Characteristics...........................................................................2-1
2-2. Rail Adapter System ................................................................. 2-9
2-3. Rail Grabbers and MILES Training Extender ........................ 2-12
2-4. Backup Iron Sight ................................................................... 2-14
2-5. M68, Close-Combat Optic...................................................... 2-15
2-6. AN/PAQ-4B/C Infrared Aiming Light ................................... 2-17
2-7. AN/PEQ-2A Target Pointer/Illuminator/Aiming Light.......... 2-19
2-8. AN/PAS-13 (V2) Medium Thermal Weapon Sight and
AN/PAS-13 (V3) Heavy Thermal Weapon Sight................... 2-22
2-9. AN/PVS-4 Night Vision Sight................................................ 2-23
2-10. Borelight .................................................................................2-25
* 2-11. Ammunition Types and Characteristics.................................. 2-26
CHAPTER 3. TROUBLESHOOTING AND DESTRUCTION
3-1. Stoppages..................................................................................3-1
3-2. Malfunctions .............................................................................3-2
3-3. Destruction Procedures.............................................................3-7
CHAPTER 4. PRELIMINARY RIFLE INSTRUCTION
(PHASE I of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)
Section I. Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training.. 4-1
4-1. Clearing.....................................................................................4-2
4-2. Cycles of Functioning............................................................... 4-2
4-3. Modes of Fire............................................................................ 4-8
4-4. Peer Coaching.........................................................................4-10
Section II. Marksmanship Fundamentals I........................................................... 4-11
4-5. The Four Fundamentals .......................................................... 4-12
4-6. Firing Positions.......................................................................4-18
* 4-7. Proper Wear and Fit of Interceptor Body Armor.................... 4-19
* 4-8. Firing Positions with Interceptor Body Armor ....................... 4-21
* 4-9. Training Devices and Exercises.............................................. 4-24
Section III. Marksmanship Fundamentals II.......................................................... 4-25
* 4-10. Weaponeer ..............................................................................4-25
* 4-11. Engagement Skills Trainer 2000............................................. 4-25
CHAPTER 5. DOWNRANGE FEEDBACK
(PHASE II of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)
5-1. Grouping Procedures ................................................................5-1
5-2. Zeroing Procedures.................................................................5-14
5-3. Known-Distance Range (With or Without LOMAH) ............ 5-17
5-4. Effects of Wind and Gravity................................................... 5-26
5-5. Ballistics..................................................................................5-32
CHAPTER 6. FIELD FIRE
(PHASE III of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)
Section I. Target Detection ...................................................................................6-1
6-1. Locating Targets .......................................................................6-1
6-2. Marking Targets........................................................................6-3
6-3. Range Determination ................................................................6-4
Section II. Field-Fire Training (Single Timed Targets
and Multiple Timed Targets) ................................................................ 6-5
6-4. Conduct of Field-Fire Range .................................................... 6-6
6-5. Field-Fire Standards..................................................................6-7
Section III. Record Qualification.............................................................................6-9
* 6-6. Practice Record Fire I and II..................................................... 6-9
6-7. Practice Record Fire Standards............................................... 6-10
* 6-8. Record Fire .............................................................................6-11
* 6-9. Alternate Qualification Courses..............................................6-14
CHAPTER 7. ADVANCED RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP
(PHASE IV of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)
Section I. Advanced Firing Positions.................................................................... 7-1
7-1. Alternate Prone Firing Position ................................................ 7-1
7-2. Kneeling Supported Firing Position ......................................... 7-2
7-3. Kneeling Unsupported Firing Position ..................................... 7-2
7-4. Standing Firing Position ........................................................... 7-3
7-5. Modified Supported Firing Position ......................................... 7-3
7-6. Urban Operations Firing Positions ........................................... 7-4
7-7. Modified Automatic and Burst Fire Position............................ 7-6
Section II. Combat Fire Techniques....................................................................... 7-7
7-8. Rapid Semiautomatic Fire ........................................................ 7-7
7-9. Automatic or Burst Fire .......................................................... 7-10
7-10. Suppressive Fire......................................................................7-13
7-11. Quick Fire ...............................................................................7-15
Section* III. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Firing.................... 7-18
* 7-12. MOPP Equipment Fire Training............................................. 7-19
* 7-13. CBRN Dry-Fire and Live-Fire Exercises ............................... 7-22
Section IV. Night Fire Training ............................................................................. 7-23
7-14. Unassisted Night Fire Training............................................... 7-24
7-15. Unassisted Night Fire Target Detection ................................. 7-26
7-16. Training with Artificial Illumination ...................................... 7-27
7-17. Unassisted Night Dry-Fire and Live-Fire Exercises............... 7-28
Section V. Moving Target Engagement ............................................................... 7-30
7-18. Moving Target Fundamentals................................................. 7-30
7-19. Single-Lead Rule for Moving Targets .................................... 7-31
7-20. Moving Target Live-Fire Exercise ......................................... 7-36
7-21. Moving Target Techniques..................................................... 7-36
Section VI. Short-Range Marksmanship Training................................................. 7-37
7-22. Conduct of Short-Range Marksmanship Training.................. 7-38
7-23. Fundamentals of Short-Range Marksmanship........................ 7-38
7-24. Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction ..................................7-42
7-25. Phase I, Reflexive Fire Training............................................. 7-43
7-26. Phase II, Target Discrimination Training ............................... 7-45
7-27. Phase III, Short-Range Marksmanship Qualification............. 7-46
7-28. Phase IV, Shotgun and Automatic Firing Familiarization...... 7-47
Section VII. Squad Designated Marksman Training............................................... 7-47
7-29. Mission of the Squad Designated Marksman ......................... 7-48
7-30. Squad Designated Marksman Program .................................. 7-48
7-31. Squad Designated Marksman Skills Progression ................... 7-48
CHAPTER 8. ADVANCED OPTICS, LASERS, AND IRON SIGHTS
(PHASE V of Basic Rifle Marksmanship)
8-1. Training Strategies and Qualification Standards ...................... 8-1
8-2. Borelight ...................................................................................8-1
8-3. Back-Up Iron Sight................................................................. 8-10
* 8-4. M68, Close-Combat Optic...................................................... 8-11
* 8-5. AN/PAS-13 (V2), (V3) Thermal Weapon Sight .................... 8-15
* 8-6. AN/PAQ-4B/C and AN/PEQ-2A, Infrared Aiming Lasers.... 8-18
* 8-7. AN/PVS-4 Night Vision Device............................................. 8-22
APPENDIX A. * TRAINING AIDS AND DEVICES............................................. A-1
APPENDIX B. * SCORECARDS.............................................................................B-1
APPENDIX C. LASER MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING SYSTEM .................C-1
APPENDIX D. RANGE SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT..................... D-1
APPENDIX E. RANGE PROCEDURES AND RANGE OPERATION
CHECKLIST.................................................................................E-1
APPENDIX F. ACTIONS, CONDITIONS, AND STANDARDS ...................... F-1
APPENDIX G. 10-METER TARGET OFFSETS AND 25-METER
ZERO OFFSETS ......................................................................... G-1
APPENDIX H. NIGHT FIGHTING..................................................................... H-1
*GLOSSARY......................................................................................................Glossary-1
REFERENCES............................................................................................... References-1
*INDEX.................................................................................................................... Index-1
*DA FIRING FORMS....................................................................................behind Index
 

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