Law Enforcement Investigations

 

Publication Title:                   Law Enforcement Investigations
Publication/revision date:    10 JAN 2005
Field Manual:                        FM 3-19.13
   Supersedes:                      FM 19-20, 25 NOV 1985
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

CONTENTS
PREFACE ....................................................................................................................ix
PART ONE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS AND TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE
Chapter 1 CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS .................................................................................1-1
Overview ...................................................................................................................1-1
Objectives of Criminal Investigations ........................................................................1-2
Army Law Enforcement Investigator .........................................................................1-2
United States Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory .............................................1-3
Victim and Witness Assistance ................................................................................1-4
Legal Considerations.................................................................................................1-5
Criminal Intelligence ..................................................................................................1-9
Investigations...........................................................................................................1-15
Evidence Gathering ................................................................................................1-16
Chapter 2 TESTIMONY ……. ....................................................................................................2-1
Rules of Evidence......................................................................................................2-1
Trial Preparation ........................................................................................................2-1
Courtroom Testimony ...............................................................................................2-2
Chapter 3 OBSERVATIONS, DESCRIPTIONS, AND IDENTIFICATIONS ..............................3-1
Overview ...................................................................................................................3-1
Factors Influencing Observation …………………………………………………….……3-1
Observations and Descriptions by Investigators ……………………………….…… ..3-3
Observations and Descriptions by Witnesses …………………………………………3-8
Identification ..............................................................................................................3-8
Composite Sketches ………....................................................................................3-10
Chapter 4 INTERVIEWS AND INTERROGATIONS................................................................ 4-1
Overview.................................................................................................................. 4-1
Testimonial Evidence .............................................................................................. 4-1
Interview Types ....................................................................................................... 4-2
Interview or Interrogation Setting............................................................................. 4-8
General Rapport Building ........................................................................................ 4-8
Custodial Versus Noncustodial Settings................................................................ 4-10
Department of the Army Form 3881 ...................................................................... 4-11
Trickery and Deceit................................................................................................ 4-16
Selection of an Interview or Interrogation Style ..................................................... 4-17
Observation of Behavior (Verbal and Nonverbal) .................................................. 4-18
Interrogation Process ............................................................................................ 4-22
Interrogation Phases ............................................................................................. 4-23
Interrogation Themes ............................................................................................ 4-27
Approaches .......................................................................................................... 4-28
Alternative Questions ............................................................................................ 4-30
Proximal and Haptic Techniques........................................................................... 4-31
False Confessions ................................................................................................. 4-31
Documentation of Statements ............................................................................... 4-32
Special Considerations ......................................................................................... 4-42
PART TWO CRIME SCENE PROCESSING AND DOCUMENTATION
Chapter 5 CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATIONS ........................................................................ 5-1
Legal and Scientific Requirements .......................................................................... 5-1
First Military Police Responder................................................................................ 5-2
Initial Notification to the Investigator ........................................................................ 5-6
Investigation Team Arrival ....................................................................................... 5-6
Crime Scene Processing ......................................................................................... 5-9
Crime Scene Investigation Documentation and Completion ................................. 5-15
Chapter 6 NOTES, PHOTOGRAPHS, AND SKETCHES ....................................................... 6-1
Notes ....................................................................................................................... 6-1
Photographs ............................................................................................................ 6-2
Cameras .................................................................................................................. 6-3
Crime Scene Photography ...................................................................................... 6-5
Crime Scene Video................................................................................................ 6-12
Sketches................................................................................................................ 6-13
PART THREE INVESTIGATIONS OF SPECIFIC CRIMINAL OFFENSES
Chapter 7 ARSON AND EXPLOSIVES INVESTIGATIONS.................................................... 7-1
Arson ...................................................................................................................... 7-1
Scene Investigation Completion ............................................................................ 7-11
Explosives .............................................................................................................. 7-12
Chapter 8 ASSAULT ................................................................................................................ 8-1
Definitions and Legal Considerations....................................................................... 8-1
Assault Investigations .............................................................................................. 8-2
Crime Scene Search ................................................................................................ 8-6
Identification of Witnesses and Suspects................................................................. 8-6
Chapter 9 BLACK MARKETING.............................................................................................. 9-1
Detect Black Market Activity..................................................................................... 9-1
Obtain Information.................................................................................................... 9-3
Locate a Supply Source ........................................................................................... 9-3
Identify Suspects...................................................................................................... 9-4
Chapter 10 BURGLARY, HOUSEBREAKING, AND LARCENY INVESTIGATIONS ............. 10-1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 10-1
Legal Description of Burglary ................................................................................. 10-1
Legal Description of Housebreaking ...................................................................... 10-1
Legal Description of Unlawful Entry ....................................................................... 10-2
Legal Description of Larceny and Wrongful Appropriation..................................... 10-2
Investigative Procedures........................................................................................ 10-3
Chapter 11 COMPUTER CRIMES............................................................................................ 11-1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 11-1
Electronic Evidence................................................................................................ 11-1
Investigative Tools and Equipment ........................................................................ 11-2
Crime Scene Security and Evaluation.................................................................... 11-3
Crime Scene Documentation ................................................................................. 11-4
Authorization to Seize Electronic Evidence ........................................................... 11-5
Evidence Collection................................................................................................ 11-6
On-Site Searches Without Seizure Authorization .................................................. 11-8
Evidence Packaging, Transporting, and Storing .................................................... 11-9
Chapter 12 DEATH SCENE INVESTIGATIONS ...................................................................... 12-1
Responsibilities ...................................................................................................... 12-1
Investigative Procedures ....................................................................................... 12-2
Scene Documentation and Evaluation ................................................................... 12-6
Body Documentation and Evaluation ..................................................................... 12-8
Decedent Profile Information Establishment and Record .................................... 12-12
Investigation Completion...................................................................................... 12-14
Types of Death..................................................................................................... 12-16
Death Investigation Tools and Equipment ........................................................... 12-41
Chapter 13 DRUG TYPES AND IDENTIFICATION ................................................................. 13-1
Legal Considerations ............................................................................................. 13-1
Preliminary Identification of Drugs ......................................................................... 13-1
Clandestine Laboratories..................................................................................... 13-11
Chapter 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES ............................................................................... 14-1
Overview ............................................................................................................... 14-1
Definition of an Environmental Crime .................................................................... 14-2
Hazardous-Incident Response .............................................................................. 14-3
General Considerations ........................................................................................ 14-4
Chapter 15 FRAUD INVESTIGATIONS .................................................................................. 15-1
Overview ............................................................................................................... 15-1
Identity Theft.......................................................................................................... 15-1
Check Fraud .......................................................................................................... 15-3
Credit Card Fraud.................................................................................................. 15-5
Fraud Against the Government ............................................................................. 15-5
Claims Fraud ......................................................................................................... 15-7
Supply Fraud ......................................................................................................... 15-8
Petroleum Distribution Fraud................................................................................. 15-9
Contracting Fraud................................................................................................ 15-10
Standards-of-Conduct Violation........................................................................... 15-11
Chapter 16 ROBBERY ............................................................................................................ 16-1
Overview ............................................................................................................... 16-1
Elements of a Robbery .......................................................................................... 16-2
Investigation of a Robbery..................................................................................... 16-3
Establishment of Modus Operandi ....................................................................... 16-6
Strong-Arm Robbery or Muggings......................................................................... 16-7
Robbery of Money-Handling Facilities ................................................................... 16-8
Chapter 17 SEX OFFENSES .................................................................................................. 17-1
Overview ............................................................................................................... 17-1
Types of Offenses and Activities ........................................................................... 17-2
Investigation of Sex Offenses................................................................................ 17-4
Evidence Obtained From Victims .......................................................................... 17-6
Evidence Obtained From Suspects ....................................................................... 17-9
Scene Processing................................................................................................ 17-10
Consent Determination........................................................................................ 17-10
Suspect Identification .......................................................................................... 17-11
Chapter 18 WAR CRIMES ...................................................................................................... 18-1
Overview................................................................................................................ 18-1
Coordination of Support......................................................................................... 18-2
Identification of War Crimes .................................................................................. 18-3
War Crime Investigations ...................................................................................... 18-4
PART FOUR EVIDENCE
Chapter 19 EVIDENCE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL ..................................................... 19-1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 19-1
Primary and Alternate Evidence Custodians.......................................................... 19-2
Repository Guidelines ............................................................................................ 19-2
Suspense Folders .................................................................................................. 19-5
Evidence Ledger .................................................................................................. 19-10
Evidence Disposition............................................................................................ 19-12
Inspections and Inventories ................................................................................. 19-14
Security Standards............................................................................................... 19-15
Temporary Evidence Containers.......................................................................... 19-16
Chapter 20 FINGERPRINTS ................................................................................................... 20-1
Describing Types of Prints ..................................................................................... 20-1
Searching for, Identifying, and Processing Latent Prints ....................................... 20-2
Preserving Latent Prints......................................................................................... 20-3
Lifting Latent Prints ................................................................................................ 20-5
Conducting Chemical Processing .......................................................................... 20-6
Obtaining Record Prints of Living Individuals......................................................... 20-7
Taking Record Prints.............................................................................................. 20-7
Obtaining Record Prints of Deceased Individuals.................................................. 20-9
Chapter 21 FIREARMS, AMMUNITION, AND TOOLMARKS ................................................ 21-1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 21-1
Recovery and Preservation of Evidence ................................................................ 21-1
Evidence Marking................................................................................................... 21-2
Evidence Transmittal.............................................................................................. 21-4
Laboratory Testing ................................................................................................. 21-5
Test Firing .............................................................................................................. 21-6
Toolmarks .............................................................................................................. 21-6
Serial Numbers ...................................................................................................... 21-9
Jeweler’s Marks ................................................................................................... 21-10
Chapter 22 IMPRESSIONS AND CASTS ............................................................................... 22-1
Footwear and Tire Track Impressions.................................................................... 22-1
Impression Searches ............................................................................................. 22-1
Impression Collection and Preservation................................................................. 22-3
Special Considerations for Tire Track Impressions................................................ 22-5
Two-Dimensional Impression Lifting ...................................................................... 22-5
Three-Dimensional Impression Casting ................................................................. 22-7
Snow Casting ......................................................................................................... 22-9
Water Casting ........................................................................................................ 22-9
Crime Laboratory Submission.............................................................................. 22-10
Chapter 23 QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS .............................................................................. 23-1
Overview ............................................................................................................... 23-1
Evidence Collection ............................................................................................... 23-1
Interviews .............................................................................................................. 23-2
Handwriting and Handwriting Comparisons........................................................... 23-3
Line Quality............................................................................................................ 23-4
Known Writings...................................................................................................... 23-5
Tracings and Simulations ...................................................................................... 23-7
Writings on Walls and Similar Surfaces................................................................. 23-7
Writing Indentations............................................................................................... 23-8
Alterations.............................................................................................................. 23-8
Typewritten Documents......................................................................................... 23-8
Typewriter Ribbons and Correction Tapes .......................................................... 23-10
Computer Printer Documents .............................................................................. 23-10
Photocopied Documents ..................................................................................... 23-10
Photocopier Exemplars ....................................................................................... 23-11
Printed Documents .............................................................................................. 23-11
Mechanical Impressions ...................................................................................... 23-12
Rubber Stamps.................................................................................................... 23-12
Ink Examinations ................................................................................................. 23-13
Paper Examinations ............................................................................................ 23-13
Torn, Cut, and Shredded Documents.................................................................. 23-13
Document Dates.................................................................................................. 23-14
Charred Documents ............................................................................................ 23-14
Copies as Evidence............................................................................................. 23-14
Court Authentication ............................................................................................ 23-15
Latent Prints on Documents ................................................................................ 23-15
Evidence Submitted............................................................................................. 23-15
On-Site Assistance ............................................................................................. 23-16
Chapter 24 DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID EVIDENCE ........................................................... 24-1
Deoxyribonucleic Acid ........................................................................................... 24-1
Body Fluids............................................................................................................ 24-4
Hairs ..................................................................................................................... 24-5
Fingernail Scrapings and Broken Fingernails ........................................................ 24-7
Combined Deoxyribonucleic Acid Index System................................................... 24-7
Combined Deoxyribonucleic Acid Index System Procedures................................ 24-8
Chapter 25 TRACE EVIDENCE............................................................................................... 25-1
Overview................................................................................................................ 25-1
Gunshot Residue Analysis .................................................................................... 25-1
Fibers..................................................................................................................... 25-3
Soil......................................................................................................................... 25-6
Building Materials, Safe Insulations, and Similar Evidence ................................... 25-7
Glass Fractures and Fragments............................................................................. 25-8
Field Examination of Fractures ............................................................................ 25-12
Laboratory Examination of Fragments and Fractures.......................................... 25-13
Paint ..................................................................................................................... 25-14
PART FIVE ACQUISITION OF POLICE INFORMATION
Chapter 26 SURVEILLANCE OPERATIONS ......................................................................... 26-1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 26-1
Qualifications.......................................................................................................... 26-2
Planning ................................................................................................................. 26-2
Surveillance Methods............................................................................................. 26-4
Surveillance Types................................................................................................. 26-5
Surveillance Initiation ........................................................................................... 26-10
Chapter 27 UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS ............................................................................ 27-1
Overview ................................................................................................................ 27-1
Planning ................................................................................................................. 27-1
Preliminary Investigation ........................................................................................ 27-3
Assignments Types................................................................................................ 27-5
Personnel Selection ............................................................................................... 27-6
Precautions and Possible Pitfalls ........................................................................... 27-6
Contact With the Suspect....................................................................................... 27-7
Special Considerations .......................................................................................... 27-8
Chapter 28 SOURCES ............................................................................................................ 28-1
Categories.............................................................................................................. 28-1
Source Selection .................................................................................................... 28-2
Source Motives ...................................................................................................... 28-3
Source Interview Techniques................................................................................. 28-5
Source Identity Protection ...................................................................................... 28-6
Source Control and Handling ................................................................................ 28-6
Source Testimony .................................................................................................. 28-7
Entrapment............................................................................................................. 28-8
Appendix A METRIC CONVERSION CHART............................................................................ A-1
Appendix B CRIME SCENE PREDEPLOYMENT EQUIPMENT LIST....................................... B-1
Appendix C EVIDENCE ROOM INSPECTION OR INVENTORY CHECKLIST......................... C-1
Appendix D ELECTRONIC DEVICES........................................................................................ D-1
Computer Systems.................................................................................................. D-1
Smart Cards, Dongles, and Biometric Scanners..................................................... D-4
Network Components .............................................................................................. D-4
Miscellaneous Electronic Items ............................................................................... D-5
Appendix E AFFIDAVIT/AUTHORIZATION TO SEARCH AND SEIZE OR APPREHEND ELECTRONIC
DEVICES.................................................................................................. E-1
Appendix F VIOLENT CRIME SCENE CHECKLIST.................................................................. F-1
Appendix G FINGERPRINTING PROCEDURES....................................................................... G-1
Appendix H TIRE CHART........................................................................................................... H-1
Appendix I PHARMACY FOLD.................................................................................................. I-1
Appendix J TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE.................................................................................. J-1
Basic ABC Procedure With Normal Pedestrian Traffic ............................................ J-1
Variations on ABC Procedure With Little Pedestrian Traffic.................................... J-1
ABC Procedure on a Very Crowded Street ............................................................. J-2
On-Foot Leading Surveillance ................................................................................. J-2
Position Changes .................................................................................................... J-3
One-Vehicle Surveillance ........................................................................................ J-5
Two-Vehicle or Multiple-Vehicle Surveillance.......................................................... J-6
Vehicle Leading Surveillance ................................................................................ J-13
Parallel Surveillance .............................................................................................. J-14
Progressive Surveillance ....................................................................................... J-14
Foot and Vehicle Surveillance ............................................................................... J-16
Surveillant’s Evasive Tactics Responses .............................................................. J-16
Appendix K UNDERCOVER MISSION CHECKLIST ................................................................. K-1
Appendix L OPERATION PLAN TEMPLATE FOR UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS ................ L-1
Appendix M RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX............................................................................... M-1
Appendix N RISK MITIGATION WORK SHEET......................................................................... N-1
GLOSSARY ................................................................................................ Glossary-1
BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................... Bibliography-1
INDEX............................................................................................................... Index-1

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