Biological Surveillance

 

Publication Title:                   Multiservice Tactics Techniques & Procedures for Biological Surveillance
Publication/revision date:    04 OCT 2004
Field Manual:                        FM 3-11.86
                                               MCRP 3-37.1C
                                               NTTP 3.11.31
                                               AFTTP(I) 3-2.52
   Supersedes:                      FM 3-101.4; 09 JUN 1997
                                               FM 3-101.6; 25 MAR 1999
                                               NWP 6-02.1
                                               AFJPAM 10-228
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

 

CONTENTS
Table of Contents

Cover

foreword

preface

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Chapter I BIOLOGICAL-SURVEILLANCE PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS, AND THREATS

Background

Surveillance Principles

Biological- and Medical-Surveillance Concepts

Execution of Operational Concepts of Biological and Medical
Surveillance

Biological-Warfare Threat Triggers

Application of Principles of Biological Surveillance

Commander’s Information Requirements—Sample Results
and Medical Surveillance
Chapter II BIOLOGICAL-SURVEILLANCE FUNCTIONS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND CAPABILITIES

Background

Responsibilities

Capabilities

Applying Biological-Detection Capabilities
Chapter III BIOLOGICAL-SURVEILLANCE PLANNING

Background

Integrated Biological-Surveillance Operations

Tactical, Operational, and Strategic Planning

Planning Process

Integration
Chapter IV BIOLOGICAL-SAMPLE EVACUATION

Background

Sample Evacuation Requirements

Supported Unit Sample Evacuation Plan

Biological Detection Asset Sample Evacuation Plan

Biological-Detection Asset Sample Evacuation Planning
and Operational Considerations

Sample Evacuation Execution

Chain-of-Custody
Chapter V INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Background

Information Management

Priority Information Requirements

Reporting

Information Collection and Operational Level Assessments

Unit Incident Reporting

Communications Architecture
Appendix A MEDICAL COUNTERMEASURES AND PROTECTION

Background

Medical Countermeasures

Vaccines

Medical Intervention

Restriction of Movement
Appendix B FIELD LAB SUPPORT

Background

Types of Labs

Confidence Levels of Lab Analysis Results

Employment of Labs

Laboratory Response Network for Biological Terrorism
Appendix C BIOLOGICAL-COLLECTION AND -DETECTION CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS

Background

Joint Portal Shield

Biological Integrated Detection System

Joint Biological Point Detection System, Fixed-Site or
Trailer-Mounted Version

Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System

Maritime Biological Agent Detection Capabilities

Dry Filter Unit

Department of Defense Biological Sampling Kit

Common Limitation
Appendix D BIOLOGICAL-DETECTION CONTRACTED LOGISTICS SUPPORT

Background

Principles

Contracted Logistics Support Planning Considerations

Employment

Responsibilities

Contracted Logistics Support Capabilities and Constraints

Contracted Logistics Support Team Assessment

Contracted Logistics Support Control

Contracted Logistics Support Concept
Appendix E BIOLOGICAL-COLLECTION AND -DETECTION SYSTEM EMPLOYMENT

Background

Mission

Concept of Operations

Employment Considerations

Biological-Warfare Threat Analysis (Intelligence Preparation
of the Battlespace)

Duration and Modes of Operation for Biological Detection

Biological-Detection and/or -Collector Employment Tactics

Preparing a Biological-Surveillance Plan

Maritime Biological -Detection and -Collection
Employment Tactics

Common Detection Site Selection Criteria for
Biological-Detection Systems

Indoor Site Selection for Biological Detectors or Collectors
Appendix F BIOLOGICAL-WARFARE ATTACK WARNIN

Background

Warning Without a Biological-Detection and -Identification
Capability

Warning With a Biological-Detection and -Identification Capability

Centralized Versus Decentralized Warning
Appendix G BIOLOGICAL-WARFARE SAMPLE EVACUATION PLANNING, HANDLING, AND CHAIN-OF-CUSTODY

Background

Sample Evacuation Planning and Execution

Sample Evacuation Logistics Requirements

Chain-of-Custody Document Preparation

Biological Sample Packaging

Sample Identification Number Assignment

Supporting Documentation Packaging

Completed Evacuation Package

Sample Evacuation Planning Considerations

Background Sample Evacuation
Appendix H LONG-RANGE BIOLOGICAL STANDOFF DETECTION SYSTEM OPERATIONS

Background

Mission

Capabilities

Organization

Employment Planning

Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System
Employment

Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System
Mission Profiles

Mission Planning

Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System
Mission Phases
Appendix I BIOLOGICAL INTEGRATED DETECTION SYSTEM UNIT OPERATIONS (M3IA1 AND M31A2)

Background

Preplanned Product Improved Biological Integrated
Detection System

Joint Biological Point Detection System (M31A2-Biological
Integrated Detection System) Operations

Biological Integrated Detection System Unit Information
Management and Reports

Biological Integrated Detection System Unit Communication

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

Index

authentication

FIGURES

Figure I-1. METT-TC Factors That Impact Biological
Surveillance

Figure I-2. Preparing BW Risk Reduction Measures

Figure II-1. JBPDS and Dry Filter Unit Coverage
of an APOD

Figure II-2. BIDS Platoon Emplacement to Provide
Coverage for JTF (Corps Size) Maneuver Forces for
a Long Line Source Attack

Figure II-3. Employment of Multiple Biological-Detection
Collection Systems (System of Systems)

Figure III-1. Biological-Surveillance Operations

Figure IV-1. Field Confirmatory Lab Support From USN
Capability

Figure IV-2. Sample Collection Flow

Figure V-1. Maintaining Mission Readiness:
“Detect to Treat”

Figure V-2. Possible Biological-Detection Network
with Centralized Warning

Figure V-3. Tracking BW Data

Figure V-4. Biological-Event-Tracking Tool

Figure V-5. Incident Report (Sample)

Figure V-6. Biological-Event-Tracking Tool (Sample)

Figure B-1. Field Confirmatory Testing

Figure B-2. Laboratory Response Network Structure

Figure E-1. Biological-Surveillance Mission
Planning—Preattack

Figure E-2. Biological-Surveillance Mission
Planning—Attack and Postattack

Figure E-3. Conducting BW-Threat Analysis (IPB)

Figure E-4. Dice Five Array

Figure E-5. Circle Employment

Figure E-6. Picket Line Employment

Figure E-7. Semicircle Employment

Figure E-8. Dense Picket Employment

Figure E-9. Critical-Node Array

Figure E-10. Area Array Support

Figure E-11. BIDS Deployment Areas

Figure G-1. Sample Chain-of-Custody Form

Figure H-1. LRBSDS Employment Concept

Figure H-2. Sample LRBSDS Mission

Figure H-3. Flight Profile Examples for LRBSDS
Missions

Figure H-4. Sample Air Mission Briefing Guide

Figure H-5. Optimal Altitude for Air Release

Figure H-6. Optimal Altitude for Ground Release

Figure H-7. Difference in Helicopter Altitude and
NAI Elevation

Figure H-8. Low-Altitude Flight Profile
Considerations

Figure H-9. Two LRBSDSs Scanning an Entire NAI

Figure H-10. An LRBSDS Scanning a Checkerboard
Pattern Into an NAI

Figure H-11. An LRBSDS Scanning the Front and
Rear Edges of an NAI

Figure H-12. Optimal Data Collection Altitude

Figure H-13. Minimum Single-Pass Altitude

Figure H-14. Minimum Multipass Altitude

Figure H-15. Departure Report

Figure H-16. Course Leg Commencement Request

Figure H-17. Course Leg Commencement SITREP

Figure H-18. Initial LAZER Detection Report

Figure H-19. Follow-Up Detection Report

Figure H-20. Cloud Loss Detection Report

Figure I-1. Sample BIDS SITREP

Figure I-2. Sample Event-Tracking Form

Figure I-3. Sample BIDS Incident Report for Event
Tracking

Figure I-4. Sample Biological-Detection Platoon
Sector Sketch

Figure I-5. HF Network

Figure I-6. MSE Network

Figure I-7. VHF Network for M31, M31A1, and M31A2
and FBCB2 for M31A2 Only

Figure I-8. Sample FBCB2 Free Message Text for
Biological-Incident Reports

TABLES

Table I-1. Biological-Surveillance Principles

Table II-1. Command Staff Biological-Defense
Responsibilities

Table II-2. Biological-Detection and -Collection
Assets—Operational Envelope

Table II-3. Biological-Sample Courier Tasks

Table III-1. Identifying Risk Reduction Measures

Table III-2. Biological-Surveillance Planning—Situation

Table III-3. Biological-Surveillance Planning—Mission

Table III-4. Biological-Surveillance Planning—Execution

Table III-5. Biological-Surveillance Planning—Service
Support

Table III-6. Biological Surveillance Planning—Command
and Signal

Table V-1. Warning Level Applicability

Table V-2. System Confidence Levels

Table C-1. BIDS Comparison

Table C-2. Dry Filter Unit 2000 Functions

Table C-3. Dry Filter Unit 2000 Biological-Detection
Process

Table E-1. Favorable, Marginal, or Unfavorable
Meteorological Conditions for BW Line Source Release

Table E-2. Sample Duration Intervals for Biological
Detection System or Collector Operations

Table F-1. Pros and Cons of the Centralized
Warning System

Table F-2. Pros and Cons of Decentralized
Warning System

Table G-1. Sample Identification Numbers

Table G-2. Preparing a Dry Filter Unit Filter for
Shipment

Table G-3. Packaging Supporting Documents for
Evacuation

Table H-1. LRBSDS Employment Options

Table H-2. Example of an LRBSDS Staff Planning
Checklist

Table H-3. Helicopter NOE Altitude (150 to 1,000 Feet
AGL)

Table H-4. Helicopter NOE Altitude (1,001 to 5,000 Feet
AGL)

Table H-5. LRBSDS Mission Planning Checklist

Table H-6. LRBSDS Mission Preparation Checklist

Table H-7. LRBSDS Biological-Detection Process

Table H-8. LRBSDS Biological-Surveillance Mission
Execution Checklist (Sample)

Table H-9. Data Items for LRBSDS Detection Report

Table H-10. LRBSDS Postoperations Checklist

Table I-1. P3I BIDS (M31A1) System Functions

Table I-2. Preparing the Wet Collector for Evacuation

Table I-3. Preparing an Alternate Sample Container
for Shipment

Table I-4. Packing Supporting Documents for
Evacuation

Table I-5. Comparison of the UVAPS, CBMS, and
Mini-FCM

Table I-6. UVAPS, CBMS, and Mini-FCM Capabilities

Table I-7. Possible Impact of the Environment on BIDS
Component Results

Table I-8. P3I BIDS Background Data

Table I-9. P3I BIDS Event Data

Table I-10. P3I BIDS System-Level Process

Table I-11. P3I BIDS System-Level Response Profile

Table I-12. Factors That Could Influence Medium or
Low Confidence Levels

Table I-13. JBPDS (M31A2-BIDS) System Functions

Table I-14. Packaging Supporting Documents for
Evacuation (JBPDS [M31A2-BIDS])

Table I-15. Background Characteristics

Table I-16. JBPDS (M31A2-BIDS) Background Data

Table I-17. JBPDS (M31A2-BIDS) Event Data

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