NBC Protection

 

Publication Title:                   NBC Protection
Publication/revision date:    02 JUN 2003
Field Manual:                        FM 3-11.4
                                               MWCP 3-37.2
                                               NTTP 3-11.27
                                               AFTTP(I) 3-2.46
   Supersedes:                      FM 3-4, 29 MAY 1992
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

Contents:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................... xi
PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS.....................................................................................................xiii
CHAPTER I NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL PROTECTION
Background... .........................................................................................I-1
Basic Fundamentals ..............................................................................I-1
Planning ................................................................................................... I-6
Protecting the Force ..............................................................................I-7
Preparedness .........................................................................................1-8
Protection Components........................................................................I-11
CHAPTER II PREATTACK, DURING-ATTACK, AND POSTATTACK PROTECTIVE
ACTIONS
Background............................................................................................II-1
Common Preattack Actions .................................................................II-1
Nuclear Protection ...............................................................................II-7
Biological Protection ..........................................................................II-15
Chemical Protection ...........................................................................II-19
Collective Protection Operations .......................................................II-26
Toxic Industrial Material Protection ................................................II-28
OPERATIONS IN UNIQUE ENVIRONMENTS
Background...........................................................................................III-1
Cold Weather........................................................................................III-1
Desert ...................................................................................................III-7
Jungle ...................................................................................................III-8
Mountains.............................................................................................III-8
Urban Areas ........................................................................................III-9
Littoral Environments .......................................................................III-10
MISSION-ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE ANALYSIS
Background.......................................................................................... IV-1
Analysis ............................................................................................... IV-1
Guidance.............................................................................................. IV-3
Levels .................................................................................................. IV-4
SUSTAINED OPERATIONS IN A NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND
CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT
Background........................................................................................... V-1
Impact of a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment ........... V-1
Impact of a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment on
Operations ............................................................................................ V-3
Impact of a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment on
Sustainment ......................................................................................... V-5
Executing Countermeasures ............................................................... V-6
INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION
Background.......................................................................................... VI-1
Mission-Oriented Protective Posture ................................................. VI-1
Individual Protection Logistics Considerations................................. VI-5
Toxic Industrial Material Individual Protection ............................... VI-6
COLLECTIVE PROTECTION
Background......................................................................................... VII-1
Planning for Collective Protection..................................................... VII-1
Fixed-Site Collective Protection ........................................................ VII-5
Transportable Collective Protection................................................ VII-10
Mobile Collective Protection ............................................................ VII-12
Navy Collective Protection Systems (Surface Ship)....................... VII-16
NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT
Background........................................................................................... A-1
Protective Clothing .............................................................................. A-1
Protective Masks ................................................................................. A-5
Toxic Industrial Material Protection .................................................. A-9
Decontamination Equipment ............................................................ A-10
Chemical Detector Paper/Kits ........................................................... A-12
First Aid Equipment ......................................................................... A-12
Related Equipment (Chemical Monitors, Radiation Detection
Instruments and Biological Detectors) ............................................. A-14
GUIDELINES FOR THE NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL
PORTION OF A COLLECTIVE PROTECTION STANDING OPERATING
PROCEDURE
Background........................................................................................... B-1
Suggested Guidelines for Preparation of a Collective Protection
System Standing Operating Procedure............................................... B-1
Entry and Exit Procedure ................................................................... B-6
Wartime Shelter Preparation and Operation ................................ B-28
Classes of Site Collective Protection and Associated
Protective Equipment ........................................................................ B-31
HUMAN FACTORS EFFECTS OF MISSION-ORIENTED PROTECTIVE
POSTURE
Background........................................................................................... C-1
Physiological Factors .......................................................................... C-1
Psychological Factors .......................................................................... C-4
Chemical Protective Overgarment Work/Rest Cycles and Water
Replacement Guidelines ...................................................................... C-5
RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION
Background........................................................................................... D-1
Operational Exposure Guidance ......................................................... D-1
Low-Level Radiation .......................................................................... D-5
Depleted Uranium.............................................................................. D-12
TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS-AN ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR,
BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL FILTER PERFORMANCE
Background........................................................................................... E-1
Filter System Operations .................................................................... E-1
Filter Assessment ................................................................................ E-2
APPENDIX F NONCOMBATANT EVACUATION OPERATIONS
Background............................................................................................F-1
Planning.................................................................................................F-1
Stages of Noncombatant Evacuation Operations................................F-1
Noncombatant Evacuation Operations in a Nuclear, Biological, and
Chemical Environment .........................................................................F-2
APPENDIX G NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL DEFENSE EQUIPMENT
DATA
APPENDIX H WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION THREATS USING POSTAL
MAIL/ PACKAGES
Background........................................................................................... H-1
Possible Indicators and Characteristics of Suspect
Mail/Packages....................................................................................... H-1
Handling Instructions.......................................................................... H-2
Reach-Back Capability......................................................................... H-5
APPENDIX I PROTECTIVE MASK PRESCRIPTION OPTICAL INSERTS
Background.............................................................................................I-1
M40/M42 Series......................................................................................I-1
M43 Series ..............................................................................................I-2
M45 Series ..............................................................................................I-2
M48 Series ..............................................................................................I-2
MCU2/P Series .......................................................................................I-2
M17 Series ..............................................................................................I-3
M17 A1/A2 ..............................................................................................I-3
Joint Service General-Purpose Mask....................................................I-3
APPENDIX J ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS
Background............................................................................................J-1
Electromagnetic Pulse ..........................................................................J-1
Electromagnetic Pulse Mitigation Techniques....................................J-1
REFERENCES……………………………................................................................. References-1
GLOSSARY................................................................................................................. Glossary-1
INDEX ......................................................................................................................... Index-1
FIGURES
I-1 NBC Information Management................................................. I-10
VII-1 General Layout for an NBC Shelter.........................................VII-5
VII-2 Tent used as a CCA ...................................................................VII-8
A-1 Wet-Weather Gear..................................................................... A-3
A-2 Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Equipment Bag................. A-3
A-3 Chemical Protective Helmet Cover........................................... A-5
A-4 Aircrew Eye/Respiratory Protection ......................................... A-7
A-5 MCU-2A/P Protective Mask ...................................................... A-8
A-6 M41 Protection Assessment Test System................................. A-9
A-7 ABC-M11 Portable Decontaminating Apparatus................... A-11
A-8 M13 Decontaminating Apparatus, Portable .......................... A-12
B-1 M12 Protective Entrance......................................................... B-33
B-2 Collective-Protection Entrance Configurations...................... B-34
TABLES
II-1 Standardized Alarm Signals for the US and its.............................
Territories and Possessions (Recommended) ............................II-4
II-2 Standardized Alarm Signals for OCONUS Bases and Stations
Subject to Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Attacks
(Recommended)...........................................................................II-6
II-3 Shielding Values of Each Cover for a 2,400-Centigray..................
Free-In-Air Dose .......................................................................II-10
II-4 Shielding Values of Each Cover for a 2,400-Centigray, Sand or
Clay-Filled Sandbags, Free-In-Air Dose .................................II-10
II-5 Wartime Climatic Filter Exchange Intervals, Blood Agent
Threat is High (Given in Weeks) ............................................II-25
IV-1 MOPP Analysis ......................................................................... IV-1
IV-2 MOPP Level 0 ........................................................................... IV-5
IV-3 MOPP Level 1 ........................................................................... IV-6
IV-4 MOPP Level 2 ........................................................................... IV-7
IV-5 MOPP Level 3 ........................................................................... IV-8
IV-6 MOPP Level 4 ........................................................................... IV-9
IV-7 MOPP Differences (Afloat versus Ashore)............................. IV-10
V-1 Factors That Influence Decreased Tolerance ........................... V-2
V-2 Common Signs of Physiological and Psychological
Degradation................................................................................ V-2
V-3 Depression/Hyperactivity Behaviors ........................................ V-3
V-4 Impact of an NBC Environment on Leaders ............................ V-3
V-5 Impact of an NBC Environment on Individuals ...................... V-3
V-6 Potential Risks From Operations in an NBC Environment.... V-5
VI-1 Protective Clothing Capabilities .............................................. VI-2
VII-1 Sample Sheltering Instructions ............................................ VII-10
VII-2 Types of COLPRO Systems................................................... VII-13
VII-3 COLPRO MOPP Levels ......................................................... VII-14
VII-4 Advantages and Disadvantages of COLPRO
Systems ................................................................................. VII-15
B-1 CCA Processing Steps to Enter an Open-Air TFA................. B-17
C-1 Work Intensities of Military Tasks........................................... C-1
C-2 Work/Rest Cycles and Water Replacement Guidelines ........... C-6
D-1 Operational Radiation Exposure Status and Risk Criteria..... D-2
D-2 Low-Level Radiation Guidance For MOOTW .......................... D-4
D-3 Contamination Control Guidance (For up to a 7-day mission or
within a 90-day mission) .......................................................... D-6
D-4 Recommended Maximum-Permissible Contamination
Levels ....................................................................................... D-13
E-1 Protection Afforded By NBC Filters For Selected TIC ........... E-3
G-1 NBC Defense Equipment ..........................................................G-2
H-1 Reach-Back Points of Contact ................................................... H-5

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