NBC Decontamination

 

Publication Title:                   NBC Decontamination
Publication/revision date:    28 JUL 2000
Field Manual:                        FM 3-5
                                               MCWP 3-37.3
   Supersedes:                      FMFM 11-10; 17 NOV 1993
Distribution Restriction:       Approved for public release, distribution unlimited (public domain manuals)

Contents:
Contents
Page
PREFACE.................................................................................................................... vi
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1-1
Contamination Forms................................................................................................. 1-1
Contamination-Hazards Transmission....................................................................... 1-1
Agent Classification .................................................................................................. 1-2
Decontaminants ........................................................................................................ 1-2
Decon Concepts......................................................................................................... 1-2
Decon Decisions ....................................................................................................... 1-2
Decon Principles ....................................................................................................... 1-3
Decon Levels ............................................................................................................ 1-4
Immediate.......................................................................................................... 1-4
Operational ....................................................................................................... 1-4
Thorough .......................................................................................................... 1-4
Chemical-Agent-Resistant Coating (CARC) ............................................................ 1-5
Weather Effects ........................................................................................................ 1-5
Temperature..................................................................................................... 1-5
Wind ................................................................................................................. 1-5
Humidity and Rain ............................................................................................ 1-5
Sunlight............................................................................................................. 1-5
Time.................................................................................................................. 1-5
Decon in Combat ...................................................................................................... 1-5
Chapter 2 IMMEDIATE DECON ................................................................................................ 2-1
Skin Decon ................................................................................................................ 2-1
Chemical........................................................................................................... 2-1
Biological ........................................................................................................ 2-1
Radiological .................................................................................................... 2-2
Personal Wipe Down ............................................................................................... 2-2
Chemical......................................................................................................... 2-2
Biological ........................................................................................................ 2-2
Radiological .................................................................................................... 2-2
Operator’s Spray Down ........................................................................................... 2-2
Chemical......................................................................................................... 2-2
Biological ........................................................................................................ 2-3
Radiological .................................................................................................... 2-4
Chapter 3 OPERATIONAL DECON......................................................................................... 3-1
Techniques .............................................................................................................. 3-1
Phases .................................................................................................................... 3-1
Preparation ..................................................................................................... 3-1
Execution........................................................................................................ 3-2
Site Clearance ................................................................................................ 3-2
Vehicle Washdown .................................................................................................. 3-3
MOPP-Gear Exchange ........................................................................................... 3-3
Buddy-Team Method ...................................................................................... 3-6
Triple Buddy-Team Method ............................................................................ 3-6
Individual (Emergency) Method...................................................................... 3-6
Chapter 4 THOROUGH DECON .............................................................................................. 4-1
Planning .................................................................................................................. 4-1
Preparation .............................................................................................................. 4-2
Execution ................................................................................................................ 4-3
Predecon Staging Area .................................................................................. 4-4
DED and DTD Areas ...................................................................................... 4-6
Postdecon AA ................................................................................................. 4-6
Detailed Troop Decon ............................................................................................. 4-6
Station 1 - Individual-Gear Decon .................................................................. 4-7
Station 2 - Overboot and Hood Decon ......................................................... 4-10
Station 3 - Overgarment Removal ................................................................ 4-11
Station 4 - Overboot and Glove Removal ..................................................... 4-12
Station 5 - Monitor ........................................................................................ 4-15
Station 6 - Mask Removal ............................................................................ 4-15
Station 7 - Mask Decon Point ....................................................................... 4-16
Station 8 - Reissue Point .............................................................................. 4-17
Resupply Support Responsibilities ........................................................................ 4-17
Detailed Equipment Decon ................................................................................... 4-18
Decon Stations ............................................................................................. 4-18
Recycle Criteria ............................................................................................ 4-22
Reconstitution Criteria .................................................................................. 4-22
DED Layouts ................................................................................................ 4-22
Alternate-Layout Planning Considerations ................................................... 4-23
Decon Platoon .............................................................................................. 4-23
Smoke/Decon Platoon.................................................................................. 4-23
Thorough-Decon-Site Closure .............................................................................. 4-29
Closing the DED Area .................................................................................. 4-30
Closing the DTD Area................................................................................... 4-32
Thorough Decon Under Unusual Conditions ........................................................ 4-33
Chapter 5 SPECIAL DECON OPERATIONS........................................................................... 5-1
Terrain Decon ......................................................................................................... 5-1
Weathering ..................................................................................................... 5-2
Removing/Covering ........................................................................................ 5-2
Neutralizing..................................................................................................... 5-2
Burning ........................................................................................................... 5-3
Exploding........................................................................................................ 5-3
Flushing .......................................................................................................... 5-4
Clearing .......................................................................................................... 5-5
Fixed-Site Decon ..................................................................................................... 5-5
Airfield............................................................................................................. 5-6
Helipad............................................................................................................ 5-6
POMCUS/Motor Park ..................................................................................... 5-7
Vulnerable Equipment Decon ................................................................................. 5-7
Electronics ...................................................................................................... 5-8
Optics.............................................................................................................. 5-8
Ammunition..................................................................................................... 5-9
Canvas Items.................................................................................................. 5-9
Food and Water .............................................................................................. 5-9
Chemical Munitions Disposal and Decon ..................................................... 5-10
Handling........................................................................................................ 5-10
Contamination Control .................................................................................. 5-11
Depleted Uranium (DU) Decon ............................................................................. 5-11
Contaminated Remains Decon ............................................................................. 5-12
Radiological Decon ............................................................................................... 5-12
Cesium.......................................................................................................... 5-12
Cobalt ........................................................................................................... 5-13
Plutonium...................................................................................................... 5-13
Strontium ...................................................................................................... 5-13
Tritium........................................................................................................... 5-14
Uranium ........................................................................................................ 5-14
Chapter 6 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS................................................... 6-1
Cold- and Arctic-Weather Areas ............................................................................. 6-1
Decontaminants.............................................................................................. 6-1
Equipment-Decon Devices ............................................................................. 6-3
Detection and Warning Devices ..................................................................... 6-3
Equipment-Decon Stations ............................................................................. 6-4
Warmed Areas ........................................................................................................ 6-4
Urban Areas ............................................................................................................ 6-5
Streets and Structures.................................................................................... 6-5
Civilians .......................................................................................................... 6-5
Supplies and Ammunition............................................................................... 6-5
Sanitation Systems ......................................................................................... 6-5
Mountains ................................................................................................................ 6-5
Mobility............................................................................................................ 6-6
Wind................................................................................................................ 6-6
Temperature ................................................................................................... 6-6
Sunlight........................................................................................................... 6-6
Jungle ...................................................................................................................... 6-6
Temperature and Humidity ............................................................................. 6-7
Time................................................................................................................ 6-7
Security........................................................................................................... 6-8
Resupply......................................................................................................... 6-8
Persistency ..................................................................................................... 6-8
Desert ...................................................................................................................... 6-8
Water .............................................................................................................. 6-8
Heat Stress..................................................................................................... 6-8
Weathering ..................................................................................................... 6-8
Bearings and Other Critical Moving Parts ...................................................... 6-9
Chapter 7 AVIATION................................................................................................................ 7-1
Contamination Avoidance ....................................................................................... 7-1
Decontaminants ...................................................................................................... 7-2
Aircraft Decon ......................................................................................................... 7-2
Decon Types .................................................................................................. 7-3
Decon Stations ............................................................................................... 7-9
Recycle Criteria ............................................................................................ 7-14
Aircraft Decon-Site Selection ................................................................................ 7-14
Decon-Site Layout ................................................................................................. 7-15
Chapter 8 PATIENT EVACUATION AND DECON .................................................................. 8-1
Evacuation Considerations ..................................................................................... 8-1
Patient Decon .......................................................................................................... 8-2
Patient Decon at an MTF ........................................................................................ 8-2
Battalion Aid Station (BAS)............................................................................. 8-3
Medical Company’s Clearing Station.............................................................. 8-3
Hospital........................................................................................................... 8-3
Chlorine-Solution Preparation for Patient Decon .................................................... 8-4
Chemical-Agent Patient Decon Procedures ............................................................ 8-4
Litter Patient ................................................................................................... 8-4
Ambulatory Patient ....................................................................................... 8-10
Biological-Agent Patient Decon Procedures ......................................................... 8-15
Litter Patient ................................................................................................. 8-15
Ambulatory Patient ....................................................................................... 8-19
Radiological-Agent Patient Decon Procedures ..................................................... 8-22
Litter Patient ................................................................................................. 8-22
Ambulatory Patient ....................................................................................... 8-25
Chapter 9 LOGISTICS.............................................................................................................. 9-1
Skin Decon and Personal Wipe Down .................................................................... 9-1
Individual-Gear Decon ............................................................................................ 9-1
Operator’s Spray Down .................................................................................. 9-1
MOPP-Gear Exchange................................................................................... 9-1
Vehicle Washdown ......................................................................................... 9-2
Detailed Troop Decon ............................................................................................. 9-2
Detailed Equipment Decon ..................................................................................... 9-2
Chapter 10 DECON PROCEDURES FOR INDIVIDUAL
AND CREW-SERVED WEAPONS........................................................................ 10-1
Operational-Decon Procedures Using the IEDK ................................................... 10-1
M60 Machine Gun ........................................................................................ 10-1
M249 Squad Automatic Weapon.................................................................. 10-2
M203 Grenade Launcher.............................................................................. 10-2
M47 Dragon.................................................................................................. 10-2
Tow Missile (M220 Series) ........................................................................... 10-3
AT4 Light Antitank Weapon.......................................................................... 10-4
66-Millimeter Rocket Launcher ..................................................................... 10-4
81-Millimeter Mortar...................................................................................... 10-4
60-Millimeter Mortar...................................................................................... 10-4
Javelin........................................................................................................... 10-5
Thorough-Decon Procedures Using the HTH Solution ......................................... 10-5
Materials ....................................................................................................... 10-7
Procedures ................................................................................................... 10-8
Appendix A CONVERSIONS AND MEASUREMENTS ............................................................. A-1
Appendix B DECONTAMINANTS ............................................................................................. B-1
Appendix C DECON OF SPECIFIC SURFACES AND MATERIALS ........................................ C-1
Appendix D DECON KITS, APPARATUSES, AND EQUIPMENT............................................. D-1
Appendix E DTD STATION CHARTS FOR CHEMICAL UNIT LEADERS AND NBC NCOS....E-1
GLOSSARY.......................................................................................................................Glossary-1
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................................................... Bibliography-1
INDEX ......................................................................................................................................Index-1

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